Sámi Parliament of Norway

Coordinates: 69°28′15″N 25°29′46″E / 69.47083°N 25.49611°E / 69.47083; 25.49611

The Sámi Parliament of Norway (Norwegian: Sametinget, Northern Sami: Sámediggi [ˈsaːmeˌtiɡːiː], Lule Sami and Pite Sami: Sámedigge, Ume Sami: Sámiediggie, Southern Sami: Saemiedigkie, Skolt Sami: Sääʹmteʹǧǧ) is the representative body for people of Sámi heritage in Norway. It acts as an institution of cultural autonomy for the indigenous Sami people.

Sámi Parliament in Norway

Northern Sami: Sámediggi
Lule Sami: Sámedigge
Pite Sami: Sámedigge
Ume Sami: Sámiediggie
Southern Sami: Saemiedigkie
Skolt Sami: Sääʹmteʹǧǧ
Norwegian: Sametinget
9th Sámi Parliamentary Assembly
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded9 October 1989 (1989-10-09)
Preceded byNorwegian Sámi Council
Leadership
Speaker
Tom Sottinen, Labour
since 15 June 2018
Deputy speaker
Tor Gunnar Nystad, NSR
since 12 October 2017
President of the Sámi Parliament
Silje Karine Muotka[1], NSR
since 21 October 2021
Structure
Seats39
Sami Parliament of Norway current.svg
Political groups
Governing Council (21)
  •   Norwegian Sámi Association (17)
  •   Centre Party (3)
  •   Ávjovári Moving Sámi List (1)

Opposition (18)

Elections
Open list proportional representation
Modified Sainte-Laguë method
Last election
13 September 2021
Next election
2025
Meeting place
Sámediggi.JPG
Sámi Parliament of Norway Building
Karasjok, Norway
Website
www.sametinget.no
Plenary 2013–17
Aerial photo of the parliament

The Parliament was opened on 9 October 1989. The seat is in the village of Kárášjohka (Karasjok) in Kárášjohka Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county. It currently has 39 representatives, who are elected every four years by direct vote from 7 constituencies. The last election was in 2021. Unlike in Finland, the 7 constituencies cover all of Norway. The current president is Silje Karine Muotka who represents the Norwegian Sámi Association.[1]

HistoryEdit

 
Plenary of the inaugural Sámi Parliament in 1989

In 1964, the Norwegian Sámi Council was established to address Sámi matters. The members of the body were appointed by state authorities. This body was replaced by the Sámi Parliament.

In 1978, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate published a plan that called for the construction of a dam and hydroelectric power plant that would create an artificial lake and inundate the Sámi village of Máze. This plan was met by strong opposition from the Sámi, and resulted in the Alta controversy. As a result of the controversy, the Norwegian government held meetings in 1980 and 1981 with a Sámi delegation appointed by the Norwegian Sámi Association, the Sámi Reindeer Herders’ Association of Norway and the Norwegian Sámi Council. The meetings resulted in the establishment of a committee to discuss Sámi cultural issues, and the Sámi Rights Committee addressing Sámi legal relations. The latter proposed a democratically elected body for the Sámi, resulting in the Sámi Act of 1987. In addition, the Sámi Rights Committee resulted in the 1988 amendment of the Norwegian Constitution, and the adoption of the Finnmark Act in 2005.[2]

 
Harald V opening the new building in 2000

The Sámi Act (1987:56),[3] stipulating the responsibilities and powers of the Norwegian Sámi Parliament, was passed by the Norwegian Parliament on 12 June 1987 and took effect on 24 February 1989. The first session of the Sámi Parliament was convened on 9 October 1989 and was opened by King Olav V.

OrganizationEdit

 
Sven-Roald Nystø, Aili Keskitalo and Ole Henrik Magga were the first three presidents

The Norwegian Sámi Parliament plenary (dievasčoahkkin) has 39 representatives elected by direct vote from 7 constituencies. The plenary is the highest body in the Sámi Parliament and it is sovereign in the execution of the Sámi Parliaments duties within the framework of the Sámi Act. The representatives from the largest party (or from a collaboration of parties) form a governing council (Sámediggeráđđi), and selects a president. Although the position of vice-president was formally removed from the Sámi Parliament's Rules of Procedure in 2013, it is considered the concern of the President of the Sámi Parliament whether he or she wants to appoint a vice-president. The governing council is responsible for executing the roles and responsibilities of the parliament between plenary meetings. In addition there are multiple thematic committees addressing specific cases.[4]

PresidentsEdit

Name
(Birth-Death)
Portrait Elected Took office Left office Political party Council(s)
1 Ole Henrik Magga
(1947–)
  1989
1993
1989 1997 Norwegian Sámi Association Magga
2 Sven-Roald Nystø
(1956–)
  1997
2001
1997 20 October 2005 Norwegian Sámi Association Nystø
3 Aili Keskitalo
(1968–)
  2005 20 October 2005 26 September 2007 Norwegian Sámi Association Keskitalo I
NSRSpSfP–JSL–SSN
4 Egil Olli
(1949–)
 
2009
26 September 2007 16 October 2013 Labour Party Olli I
Ap
Olli II
ApÁrja–NKF–ÅAsG–SSN
5 Aili Keskitalo
(1968–)
  2013 16 October 2013 8 December 2016 Norwegian Sámi Association Keskitalo II
NSRApÁrja–ÅAsG
6 Vibeke Larsen
(1971–)
  8 December 2016 12 October 2017 Labour Party Larsen
ApHÁrja
Independent
7 Aili Keskitalo
(1968–)
  2017 12 October 2017 21 October 2021 Norwegian Sámi Association Keskitalo III
NSRSp–JSL–ÅAsG
8 Silje Karine Muotka
(1975–)
  2021 21 October 2021[1] Incumbent Norwegian Sámi Association Muotka
NSRSp–JSL

LocationEdit

 
The Sámi Parliament building in Norway
 
The Guovdageaidnu office of the Sámi Parliament of Norway

The Sámi Parliament of Norway is located in Karasjok (Kárášjohka), and the building was inaugurated on 2 November 2000. There are also offices in Guovdageaidnu (Kautokeino), Unjárga (Nesseby), Gáivuotna (Kåfjord), Romsa (Tromsø), Skánik (Evenskjær) Ájluokta (Drag), Aarborte (Hattfjelldal) and Snåase (Snåsa).

The town of Kárášjohka is considered an important center of Sámi culture in Norway. Approximately 80% of the town's population is Sámi-speaking, and the town also hosts Sámi broadcasting stations and several public and private Sámi institutions such as the Sámi Museum and the organization Sami Trade and Industry.[5][6]

BuildingEdit

The building was designed by the architects Stein Halvorsen & Christian Sundby, who won the Norwegian government's call for projects in 1995, and inaugurated in 2005. The government called for a building such that "the Sami Parliament appears in a dignified way" and "reflects Sami architecture." Hence the peaked structure of the Plenary Assembly Hall resembles the tipis the Sámi used as a nomadic culture. The parliament building also houses a Sámi library focusing on books in the Sámi language or on Sámi topics, and the Sámi chamber of commerce, Sámi Trade and Industry'.[7][8]

ResponsibilitiesEdit

The parliament works with political issues it considers relevant or of interest to the Sámi people. The responsibilities of the Sámi Parliament in Norway are: "(1) to serve as the Sámi’s elected political body to promote political initiatives and (2) to carry out the administrative tasks delegated from national authorities or by law to the Sami Parliament.".[4]

The extent of responsibility that was assigned and transferred from the Norwegian government at the time of establishment was modest (1989). However, more responsibilities have been added including:[9]

  • Management of the Sámi Development Fund, which is used for grants to Sami organizations and Sami duodji (1989).
  • Responsibility for the development of the Sámi language in Norway, including allocation of funds to Sámi language municipalities and counties (1992).
  • Responsibility for Sámi culture, including a fund from the Norwegian Council for Cultural Affairs (1993).
  • Protection of Sámi cultural heritage sites (1994).
  • Development of Sámi teaching aids, including allocation of grants for this purpose (2000).
  • Election of 50% of the members to the board in the Finnmark Estate (2006).
 
The library of the Sámi Parliament in Norway.

One of the responsibilities is ensuring that the section 1–5 of the Saami Act (1987:56)[3] is upheld, i.e., that the Sámi languages and Norwegian continue to have the same status. A good example of this is the current situation in Tysfjord, where speakers of Lule Sámi cannot conduct their official business in that language as the municipality has not provided anyone who can speak it to assist them.[citation needed] This is the only municipality in Norway where speakers of that language should theoretically be able to speak it with officials, but this has not come to fruition; therefore, the Sámi Parliament must fight for this cause with Tysfjord and must bring it to the attention of the Norwegian Government, if Tysfjord fails to rectify the situation.

FinancesEdit

FundingEdit

Funding is granted by the Norwegian state over various national budget lines. But the parliament can distribute the received funds according to its own priorities. In the Norwegian government the main responsibility for Sámi affairs, including the allocation of funds, is the Ministry of Local government.[4]

Salaries and other expensesEdit

The president's salary is 80% of that of the members of the Norwegian cabinet. The salary of the other 4 members of the Sámediggeráđđi (governing council) is 75% of the president's salary. The speaker's salary is 80% of the president's.[10]

ElectionsEdit

To be eligible to vote or be elected to the Norwegian Sámi Parliament a person needs to be included in the Sámi Parliament’s electoral roll. In order to be included the following criteria must be met as stipulated in Section 2–6 of the Sámi Act: "Everyone who declares that they consider themselves to be Sámi, and who either has Sámi as his or her home language, or has or has had a parent, grandparent or great-grandparent with Sámi as his or her home language, or who is a child of someone who is or has been registered in the Sámi Parliament’s electoral roll, has the right to be enrolled in the Electoral roll of the Sámi Parliament in the municipality of residence."[4] Results of the last election:

Summary of the 13 September 2021 Norwegian Sámi parliamentary election results
 
Party Votes Seats
# % ± # ±
Norwegian Sámi Association (NSR) 4,414 31.9% +3.8% 17 -1
North Calotte People (NKF) 2,529 18.3% +11.7% 9 +6
Labour Party (Ap) 2,081 15.0% -2.0% 7 -2
Centre Party (Sp) 1,326 9.6% +2.0% 3 +1
Sámi People's Party (SfP) 772 5.6% +3.6% 1 +0
Árja 738 5.3% -2.4% 0 -1
Progress Party (FrP) 660 4.8% -2.7% 1 0
Conservative Party (H) 596 4.3% -2.1% 0 -1
Ávjovári Moving Sámi List (JSL) 329 2.4% -0.1% 1 +0
People's Federation of the Saami (SFF) 200 1.4% -0.3% 0 +0
Ávjovári Residents List (FABL) 189 1.4% -0.1% 0 -1
Totals 14,084 100.0 39 ±0
Blank and invalid votes 296
Registered voters/turnout 20,541 68.6 -1.7
Source: valgresultat.no


Cooperation with the state governmentEdit

 
Plenary hall

In the Norwegian central administration the coordinating organ and central administrator for Sámi issues is the Department of Sámi and Minority Affairs in the Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion. This department also coordinates inter-ministerial and Nordic state cooperation regarding Sámi issues. The Sámi Parliament is consulted when state government issues affect Sámi interests.[11]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Keskitalo guodá – Muotká joarkká". NRK Sápmi (in Lule Sami). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b c d "The respond by the Sami Parliament of Norway on the UNPFII Questionnaire 2016" (PDF). Un.org. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  5. ^ "The Town with the Sami Parliament", Cristian Uluru, 2006.
  6. ^ See the Wikipedia article on Kárášjohka.
  7. ^ "Parliament for the Sami people", SH arkitekter, on the Modern Architectural Concepts blog, consulted 3 November 2010
  8. ^ "Norway’s Sami Parliament: Getting to 50-50" Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine, on the International Museum of Women website, consulted 3 November 2010.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Sametingets budsjett 2019, punkt 13. (17th of January 2019). Sametinget. Read on the 18th of May 2019 at sametinget.no
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit