List of cervids

Cervidae is a family of hoofed ruminant mammals in the order Artiodactyla. A member of this family is called a deer or a cervid. They are widespread throughout North and South America, Europe, and Asia, and are found in a wide variety of biomes. Cervids range in size from the 60 cm (24 in) long and 32 cm (13 in) tall pudú to the 3.4 m (11.2 ft) long and 3.4 m (11.2 ft) tall moose. Most species do not have population estimates, though the roe deer has a population size of approximately 15 million, while several are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 200. One species, Père David's deer, is extinct in the wild, and one, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.

Eight cervid species (counterclockwise from top left): the red deer (Cervus elaphus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), elk (Cervus canadensis), and southern pudú (Pudu puda)

The fifty-four species of Cervidae are split into eighteen genera within three subfamilies: Capreolinae (New World deer), Cervinae (Old World deer), and Hydropotinae (water deer). Extinct species have also been placed into Capreolinae and Cervinae. More than one hundred extinct Cervidae species have been discovered, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed.[1]

ConventionsEdit

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (1 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (1 species)
 CR Critically Endangered (2 species)
 EN Endangered (6 species)
 VU Vulnerable (16 species)
 NT Near threatened (4 species)
 LC Least concern (14 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (9 species)
 NE Not evaluated (1 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the cervid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol " ".

ClassificationEdit

The family Cervidae consists of 53 extant species belonging to 18 genera in 3 subfamilies and divided into dozens of extant subspecies. This does not include hybrid species or extinct prehistoric species. Additionally, one species, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.[2]

Cervidae  
Cervinae  

Elaphodus

Muntiacus

Dama

Rusa

Cervus

Elaphurus

Rucervus

Axis

Capreolinae  

Rangifer

Mazama

Odocoileus

Blastocerus

Hippocamelus

Ozotoceros

Pudu

Capreolus

Alces

Hydropotinae  

Hydropotes

CervidsEdit

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis. This includes merging the two moose species of Alces into one and splitting out the genus Hyelaphus from Axis. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as splitting out the monotypic Panolia genus from Rucervus, combining the monotypic subfamily Hydropotinae with Capreolinae, or the addition of the fair brocket to the Mazama genus, which are not included here.[3][4]

Subfamily CapreolinaeEdit

Genus Alces (Gray, 1821) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Moose

 

A. alces
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
  • A. a. alces (European elk)
  • A. a. americanus (Eastern moose)
  • A. a. andersoni (Western moose)
  • A. a. buturlini (Chukotka elk)
  • A. a. caucasicus (Caucasian moose) 
  • A. a. cameloides (Ussuri elk)
  • A. a. gigas (Alaskan moose)
  • A. a. pfizenmayeri (Yakutia elk)
  • A. a. shirasi (Shiras' moose)
North America, Europe, and Asia
 
Size: 230–340 cm (91–134 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; up to 230 cm (91 in) tall at shoulder[5]

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands[6]

Diet: Vegetative parts of trees, as well as shrubs, herbs, and aquatic plants[6]
 LC 


2,000,000[6][7]  [6]

Genus Blastocerus (Wagner, 1844) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Marsh deer

 

B. dichotomus
Illiger, 1815
Scattered parts of central South America (former range in red)
 
Size: 153–191 cm (60–75 in) long, plus 12–16 cm (5–6 in) tail; 110–127 cm (43–50 in) tall at shoulder[8]

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands[9]

Diet: Grasses, reeds and aquatic plants, as well as shrubs and vines[9]
 VU 


Unknown  [9]

Genus Capreolus (Gray, 1821) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Roe deer

 

C. capreolus
Linnaeus, 1758

Four subspecies
  • C. c. canus
  • C. c. capreolus
  • C. c. caucasicus
  • C. c. italicus
Europe
 
Size: 104–124 cm (41–49 in) long, plus 2–3 cm (1–1 in) tail; 66–84 cm (26–33 in) tall at shoulder[10]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[11]

Diet: Wide variety of plants[11][10]
 LC 


15,000,000  [11]

Siberian roe deer

 

C. pygargus
Pallas, 1771

Four subspecies
  • C. p. bedfordi
  • C. p. mantschuricus
  • C. p. ochraceus
  • C. p. pygargus
Central and northeastern Asia Size: 95–140 cm (37–55 in) long, plus 20–40 cm (8–16 in) tail; 65–95 cm (26–37 in) tall at shoulder[12]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[13]

Diet: Grasses[13]
 LC 


Unknown  [13]

Genus Hippocamelus (Leuckart, 1816) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
South Andean deer

 

H. bisulcus
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
 
Size: 144–156 cm (57–61 in) long, plus 12–13 cm (5–5 in) tail; 80–90 cm (31–35 in) tall at shoulder[14]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, rocky areas, and desert[15]

Diet: Varied range of grasses and other plants[15]
 EN 


1,000–1,500  [15]

Taruca

 

H. antisensis
d'Orbigny, 1834
Andes mountains
 
Size: 69–77 cm (27–30 in) tall at shoulder[16]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, rocky areas, and other[17]

Diet: Sedges and grasses[16][17]
 VU 


4,200–5,700  [17]

Genus Mazama (Rafinesque, 1817) – nine species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Amazonian brown brocket

 

M. nemorivaga
F. Cuvier, 1817
Northern and central South America
 
Size: 75–100 cm (30–39 in) long, plus 6–11 cm (2–4 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder[18]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[19]

Diet: Fruit, as well as leaves and shoots[18]
 LC 


Unknown  [19]

Central American red brocket

 

M. temama
Kerr, 1792

Three subspecies
  • M. t. cerasina
  • M. t. reperticia
  • M. t. temama
Central America
 
Size: 80–110 cm (31–43 in) long, plus 10–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 60–70 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder[18]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[20]

Diet: Fruit, as well as seeds, grass, shoots, vines, and sometimes crops such as beans[18]
 DD 


Unknown  [20]

Dwarf brocket M. chunyi
Hershkovitz, 1959
Central Andes mountains
 
Size: About 70 cm (28 in) long; about 38 cm (15 in) tall at shoulder[21]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[22]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs[22]
 VU 


Unknown  [22]

Gray brocket

 

M. gouazoubira
Fischer von Waldheim, 1814

Eleven subspecies
  • M. g. cita
  • M. g. gouazoubira
  • M. g. medemi
  • M. g. mexianae
  • M. g. murelia
  • M. g. nemorivaga
  • M. g. permira
  • M. g. sanctaemartae
  • M. g. rondoni
  • M. g. superciliaris
  • M. g. tschudii
Eastern South America
 
Size: 85–105 cm (33–41 in) long[18]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands[23]

Diet: Wide variety of plants as well as fruit[23]
 LC 


Unknown  [23]

Little red brocket

 

M. rufina
Bourcier, Pucheran, 1852
Northern Andes mountains
 
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; about 45 cm (18 in) tall at shoulder[24]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[25]

Diet: Herbs as well as other plants[25]
 VU 


Unknown  [25]

Mérida brocket M. bricenii
Thomas, 1908
Northern Andes mountains
 
Size: 80–95 cm (31–37 in) long, plus 8–9 cm (3–4 in) tail; 45–50 cm (18–20 in) tall at shoulder[18]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas[26]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs[26]
 VU 


Unknown  [26]

Pygmy brocket

 

M. nana
Hensel, 1872
Southeastern South America (possible range in yellow)
 
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; less than 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder[24]

Habitat: Forest[27]

Diet: Unknown[18][27]
 VU 


Unknown  [27]

Red brocket

 

M. americana
Erxleben, 1777

Twelve subspecies
  • M. a. americana
  • M. a. carrikeri
  • M. a. gualea
  • M. a. jucunda
  • M. a. rosii
  • M. a. rufa
  • M. a. sarae
  • M. a. sheila
  • M. a. trinitatis
  • M. a. whitelyi
  • M. a. zamora
  • M. a. zetta
Northern and central South America
 
Size: 103–146 cm (41–57 in) long, plus 8–15 cm (3–6 in) tail; 65–80 cm (26–31 in) tall at shoulder[28]

Habitat: Forest[29]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs[29]
 DD 


Unknown  [29]

Small red brocket

 

M. bororo
Duarte, 1996
Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil (possible range in yellow)
 
Size: 85 cm (33 in) long, plus 11–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder[18]

Habitat: Forest[30]

Diet: Fruit, leaves, and sprouts[18]
 VU 


8,500  [30]

Genus Odocoileus (Rafinesque, 1832) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Mule deer

 

O. hemionus
Rafinesque, 1817

Ten subspecies
  • O. h. californicus (California mule deer)
  • O. h. cerrosensis (Cedros Island mule deer)
  • O. h. columbianus (Black-tailed deer)
  • O. h. eremicus (desert mule deer)
  • O. h. fuliginatus (southern mule deer)
  • O. h. hemionus (Rocky Mountain mule deer)
  • O. h. inyoensis (Inyo mule deer)
  • O. h. peninsulae (peninsular mule deer)
  • O. h. sheldoni (Tiburon Island mule deer)
  • O. h. sitkensis (Sitka deer)
Western North America
 
Size: 152–203 cm (60–80 in) long; 80–106 cm (31–42 in) tall at shoulder[31]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, and intertidal marine[32]

Diet: Leaves, twigs, acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits[31][32]
 LC 


Unknown  [32]

Yucatan brown brocket

 

O. pandora
Merriam, 1901
Yucatán Peninsula
 
Size: About 105 cm (41 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail[33]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[34]

Diet: Fruit, as well as other plants[18]
 VU 


Unknown  [34]

White-tailed deer

 

O. virginianus
Rafinesque, 1832

38 subspecies
  • O. v. acapulcensis
  • O. v. borealis (northern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. cariacou
  • O. v. carminis (Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. chiriquensis
  • O. v. clavium (Key deer)
  • O. v. couesi (Coues' white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. curassavicus
  • O. v. dacotensis (Dakota white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. goudotii
  • O. v. gymnotis (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. hiltonensis (Hilton Head white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. leucurus (Columbian white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. macrourus (Kansas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. margaritae
  • O. v. mcilhennyi (Avery Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. mexicanus
  • O. v. miquihuanensis
  • O. v. nelsoni
  • O. v. nemoralis (Nicaraguan white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. nigribarbis (Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. oaxacensis
  • O. v. ochrourus (northwestern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. osceola (Florida coastal white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. peruvianus (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. rothschildi
  • O. v. seminolus (Florida white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. sinaloae
  • O. v. taurinsulae (Bulls Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. texanus (Texas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. thomasi
  • O. v. toltecus
  • O. v. tropicalis
  • O. v. ustus
  • O. v. venatorius (Hunting Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. veraecrucis
  • O. v. virginianus (Virginia white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. yucatanensis
North America and northern South America
 
Size: 150–200 cm (59–79 in) long, plus 10–28 cm (4–11 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, neritic marine, intertidal marine, and coastal marine[36]

Diet: Wide variety of vegetation and grasses[36]
 LC 


Unknown  [36]

Genus Ozotoceros (Ameghino, 1891) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Pampas deer

 

O. bezoarticus
Linnaeus, 1758

Five subspecies
  • O. b. arerunguaensis
  • O. b. bezoarticus
  • O. b. celer
  • O. b. leucogaster
  • O. b. uruguayensis
Scattered central South America
 
Size: 110–140 cm (43–55 in) long; 70–75 cm (28–30 in) tall at shoulder[37]

Habitat: Savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands[38]

Diet: Grasses and shrubs[37][38]
 NT 


20,000–80,000  [38]

Genus Pudu (Gray, 1852) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Northern pudú P. mephistophiles
Winton, 1896
Northern Andes mountains
 
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 32–35 cm (13–14 in) tall at shoulder[39][40]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[41]

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs[41][42]
 DD 


Unknown  [41]

Southern pudú

 

P. puda
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
 
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 35–45 cm (14–18 in) tall at shoulder[39][40]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[43]

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs[42][43]
 NT 


Unknown  [43]

Genus Rangifer (H. Smith, 1827) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Reindeer

 

R. tarandus
Linnaeus, 1758

Fourteen subspecies
Arctic North America, Europe, and Asia
 
Size: 150–230 cm (59–91 in) long; up to 120 cm (47 in) tall at shoulder[44]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[45]

Diet: Lichen, forbs, sedges, grasses, and shrubs[45]
 VU 


2,890,000  [45]

Subfamily CervinaeEdit

Genus Axis (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Chital

 

A. axis
Erxleben, 1777
Indian subcontinent
 
Size: 70 cm (28 in) long plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 35–38 cm (14–15 in) tall at shoulder[46][47]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland[48]

Diet: Wide variety of grasses as well as fallen leaves, flowers, and fruit[48]
 LC 


Unknown  [48]

Calamian deer

 

A. calamianensis
Heude, 1888
Calamian Islands of the Philippines Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long, plus 12–38 cm (5–15 in) tail; 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall at shoulder[49]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland[50]

Diet: Leaves[50]
 EN 


Unknown  [50]

Bawean deer

 

A. kuhlii
Temminck, 1836
Bawean island of Indonesia
 
Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long[51]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[52]

Diet: Herbs and grasses, as well as young leaves and twigs[52]
 CR 


200–500  [52]

Indian hog deer

 

A. porcinus
Zimmermann, 1780
Southern and southeast Asia
 
Size: 105–115 cm (41–45 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 60–72 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder[53]

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[54]

Diet: Young grasses, as well as herbs, flowers, fruit, and shrubs[54]
 EN 


Unknown  [54]

Genus Cervus (Linnaeus, 1758) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Thorold's deer

 

C. albirostris
Przhevalsky, 1883
Central China Size: 155–210 cm (61–83 in) long, plus 10–13 cm (4–5 in) tail; 115–140 cm (45–55 in) tall at shoulder[55]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[56]

Diet: Grass, herbs, lichens, leaves, and bark of trees and bushes[56]
 VU 


Unknown  [56]

Elk

 

C. canadensis
Erxleben, 1777

Thirteen subspecies
North America and Asia (former range in light green)
 
Size: 210–280 cm (83–110 in) long plus 10–22 cm (4–9 in) tail; 120–175 cm (47–69 in) tall at shoulder[57][58]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[59]

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, and shrubs[59]
 LC 


Unknown  [59]

Red deer

 

C. elaphus
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
Europe and western Asia (former range in light green)
 
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long; 75–150 cm (30–59 in) tall at shoulder[60]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas[61]

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, shrubs, fruit, and seeds[61]
 LC 


Unknown  [61]

Central Asian red deer

 

C. hanglu
Wagner, 1844

Three subspecies
Central Asia Size:

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[62]

Diet: Branches of young deciduous trees[62]
 LC 


2,000-2,500+  [62]

Sika deer

 

C. nippon
Temminck, 1838

Sixteen subspecies
East Asia Size: 95–180 cm (37–71 in) long plus 7–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 64–109 cm (25–43 in) tall at shoulder[63]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[64]

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs and fruit[64]
 LC 


Unknown  [64]

Genus Dama (Frisch, 1775) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
European fallow deer

 

D. dama
Linnaeus, 1758
Europe and west Asia; introduced scattered areas worldwide (in teal)
 
Size: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder[65]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[66]

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark[65][66]
 LC 


Unknown  [66]

Persian fallow deer

 

D. mesopotamica
Brooke, 1875
Iran and Israel Size: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder[65]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland[67]

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark[67]
 EN 


Unknown  [67]

Genus Elaphodus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Tufted deer

 

E. cephalophus
H. Milne-Edwards, 1872

Four subspecies
  • E. c. cephalophus
  • E. c. fociensis
  • E. c. ichangensis
  • E. c. michianus
Central China and northeastern Myanmar Size: 110–160 cm (43–63 in) long, plus 7–16 cm (3–6 in) tail; 50–70 cm (20–28 in) tall at shoulder[68]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[69]

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs, fruits, bamboo, and herbs[69]
 NT 


Unknown  [69]

Genus Elaphurus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Père David's deer

 

E. davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
China Size: 183–216 cm (72–85 in) long, plus 22–36 cm (9–14 in) tail[70]

Habitat: Grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine[71]

Diet: Grass, reeds, and bush leaves[71]
 EW 


Unknown  [71]

Genus Muntiacus (Rafinesque, 1815) – eleven species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Bornean yellow muntjac M. atherodes
Groves, Grubb, 1982
Borneo Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail; 65 cm (26 in) tall at shoulder[72][73]

Habitat: Forest[74]

Diet: Herbs, seeds, grass, buds, leaves, and fruit[72]
 NT 


Unknown  [74]

Fea's muntjac

 

M. feae
Thomas, Doria, 1889
Southern Myanmar and Thailand
 
Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 10–17 cm (4–7 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder[72]

Habitat: Forest[75]

Diet: Fruit and leaves, as well as grass and shoots[72]
 DD 


Unknown  [75]

Giant muntjac M. vuquangensis
Tuoc, Dung, Dawson, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1994
Northern Vietnam and Laos
 
Size: 110–115 cm (43–45 in) long, plus 17 cm (7 in) tail; 65–70 cm (26–28 in) tall at shoulder[72]

Habitat: Forest[76]

Diet: Fruit and leaves[72]
 CR 


Unknown  [76]

Gongshan muntjac M. gongshanensis
Ma, 1990
South-central China
 
Size: 95–105 cm (37–41 in) long, plus 9–16 cm (4–6 in) tail; 55–57 cm (22–22 in) tall at shoulder[77]

Habitat: Forest[78]

Diet: Unknown[72][78]
 DD 


Unknown  [78]

Hairy-fronted muntjac

 

M. crinifrons
P. L. Sclater, 1885
Southeastern China Size: 98–113 cm (39–44 in) long, plus 21 cm (8 in) tail[79]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[80]

Diet: Wide variety of tree leaves and twigs, forbs, grass, and fruit[80]
 VU 


Unknown  [80]

Indian muntjac

 

M. muntjak
Zimmermann, 1780

Eleven subspecies
  • M. m. annamensis
  • M. m. aureus
  • M. m. curvostylis
  • M. m. guangdongensis
  • M. m. malabaricus
  • M. m. menglalis
  • M. m. montanus (Sumatran muntjac)
  • M. m. muntjak
  • M. m. nigripes
  • M. m. vaginalis
  • M. m. yunnanensis
Southern and Southeast Asia
 
Size: 89–135 cm (35–53 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail; 40–65 cm (16–26 in) tall at shoulder[81]

Habitat: Forest[82]

Diet: Fruit, buds, tender leaves, flowers, herbs, and young grass[82]
 LC 


Unknown  [82]

Leaf muntjac M. putaoensis
Amato, Egan & Rabinowitz, 1999
Myanmar Size: 77–83 cm (30–33 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder[83]

Habitat: Forest[84]

Diet: Fruit and a range of plant materials[84]
 DD 


Unknown  [84]

Pu Hoat muntjac M. puhoatensis
Trai, 1997
Vietnam Size: Small and similar to the Truong Son muntjac, but specific measurements not available[72]

Habitat: Forest[85]

Diet: Unknown[72][85]
 DD 


Unknown  [85]

Reeves's muntjac

 

M. reevesi
Ogilby, 1839

Three subspecies
  • M. r. jiangkouensis
  • M. r. micrurus
  • M. r. reevesi
Eastern China; introduced to Britain and Japan Size: 70–113 cm (28–44 in) long, plus 10 cm (4 in) tail; 43–45 cm (17–18 in) tall at shoulder[86]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[87]

Diet: Bamboo, seeds, bark, fruit and foliage, as well as eggs, carrion, small mammals, and ground-nesting birds[86][87]
 LC 


Unknown  [87]

Roosevelt's muntjac M. rooseveltorum
Osgood, 1932

 
Size: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available[72]

Habitat: Forest[88]

Diet: Leaves and fruit[72]
 DD 


Unknown  [88]

Truong Son muntjac M. truongsonensis
Giao, Tuoc, Dung, Wikramanayake, Amato, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1997
Southern Vietnam Size: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available[72]

Habitat: Forest[89]

Diet: Leaves and fruit[72]
 DD 


Unknown  [89]

Genus Rucervus (Hodgson, 1838) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Barasingha

 

R. duvaucelii
Cuvier, 1823

Three subspecies
  • R. d. branderi (Southern swamp deer)
  • R. d. duvaucelii (Western swamp deer)
  • R. d. ranjitsinhi (Eastern swamp deer)
Scattered parts of south Asia (historical range in yellow)
 
Size: About 180 cm (71 in) long; 119–124 cm (47–49 in) tall at shoulder[90]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands[91]

Diet: Grass and aquatic plants[91]
 VU 


Unknown  [91]

Eld's deer

 

R. eldii
McClelland, 1842

Three subspecies
  • R. e. eldii (Sangai)
  • R. e. siamensis (Burmese brow-antlered deer)
  • R. e. thamin (Thai brow-antlered deer)
Scattered parts of southeast Asia Size: Males 160–170 cm (63–67 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 115–130 cm (45–51 in) tall at shoulder.

Females 140–150 cm (55–59 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder.[92]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[93]

Diet: A variety of grasses, fruit, and herbaceous and wetland plants[94][93]

 EN 


Unknown  [93]

Schomburgk's deer 

 

R. schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Central Thailand Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and inland wetlands[95]

Diet: Unknown[95]
 EX 


0  [95]

Genus Rusa (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Visayan spotted deer

 

R. alfredi
P. L. Sclater, 1870
Philippines Size: 120–130 cm (47–51 in) long, plus 8–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 60–80 cm (24–31 in) tall at shoulder[96]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[97]

Diet: Cogon grass and young leaves and buds[97]
 EN 


700  [97]

Philippine deer

 

R. marianna
Desmarest, 1822

Four subspecies
  • R. m. barandana
  • R. m. marianna
  • R. m. nigella
  • R. m. nigricans
Philippines Size: 100–151 cm (39–59 in) long; 55–70 cm (22–28 in) tall at shoulder[98]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[99]

Diet: Grass[99]
 VU 


Unknown  [99]

Javan rusa

 

R. timorensis
Blainville, 1822

Seven subspecies
  • R. t. djonga
  • R. t. floresiensis (Flores rusa deer)
  • R. t. macassaricus (Celebes rusa deer)
  • R. t. moluccensis (Moluccan rusa deer)
  • R. t. renschi
  • R. t. russa (Javan rusa deer)
  • R. t. timorensis (Timor rusa deer)
Indonesia and East Timor
 
Size: 142–185 cm (56–73 in) long, plus 10–30 cm (4–12 in) tail; 80–110 cm (31–43 in) tall at shoulder[100]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland[101]

Diet: Grass, herbs, the leaves and bark of shrubs, and seaweed[101]
 VU 


10,000  [101]

Sambar deer

 

R. unicolor
Kerr, 1792

Seven subspecies
  • R. u. brookei (Bornean sambar)
  • R. u. cambojensis (Mainland Southeast Asian sambar)
  • R. u. dejeani (South China sambar)
  • R. u. equina (Malayan sambar)
  • R. u. hainana (Hainan sambar)
  • R. u. swinhoii (Formosan sambar)
  • R. u. unicolor (Sri Lankan sambar)
South and Southeast Asia including Southern China
 
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long, plus 25–30 cm (10–12 in) tail; 102–160 cm (40–63 in) tall at shoulder[102]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[103]

Diet: Wide variety of plants[103]
 VU 


Unknown  [103]

Subfamily HydropotinaeEdit

Genus Hydropotes (R. Swinhoe, 1870) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Water deer

 

H. inermis
Swinhoe, 1870

Two subspecies
  • H. i. argyropus (Korean water deer)
  • H. i. inermis (Chinese water deer)
East China and Korean peninsula Size: 89–103 cm (35–41 in) long, plus 6–7 cm (2–3 in) tail; 45–57 cm (18–22 in) tall at shoulder[104]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine[105]

Diet: Reeds, coarse grasses, vegetables, and beets[105][106]
 VU 


Unknown  [105]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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