良心拒服兵役者

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“我和越共没有什么矛盾……他们从没叫过我黑鬼。”——穆罕默德·阿里,1966年

良心拒服兵役者英语:conscientious objector)是指由于思想自由,个人良心或者宗教信仰的缘故[1],而要求拒绝履行军事服务权利的个人[2]。通常来讲,良心拒服兵役者这一情况只会存在于征兵制中,而非志愿兵役制中。

在一些国家,良心拒服兵役者会被分配到一个用做替代兵役的民事服务中。一些良心拒服兵役者视其自身为和平主义者、不干涉主义者、不抵抗主义者、不侵犯主义者、反军事主义者。

在1995年3月8日,联合国人权委员会通过的1995/83决议声明“履行军事服务的人员不应该排除其因为良心而拒绝军事服务的权利”[3]。这一理念在1998年被重申,1998/77决议承认“(已经)在服兵役的人员可以产生出良心的拒绝想法”[4][5][6][7]。一些组织则在5月15日庆祝国际良心拒服兵役者日[8]。这一词的含义也被延伸至因良心不安而拒绝为整个军事工业复合体服务的人[9]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ On July 30, 2001, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Para. 11: Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. [2012-05-07]. 
  2. ^ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. [2008-05-15]. 
  3. ^ UN Commission on Human Rights. UN Commission on Human Rights, Conscientious objection to military service., 8 March 1995, E/CN.4/RES/1995/83 (See point #2). UN Commission on Human Rights. March 8, 1995 [2009-12-02]. 
  4. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Conscientious objection to military service; Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77; see preamble "Aware...". United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. April 22, 1998 [2009-12-08]. 
  5. ^ Conscientious objection to military service; E/CN.4/RES/1998/77; See introductory paragraph. UN Commission on Human Rights. April 22, 1998 [2009-12-09]. 
  6. ^ Conscientious objection to military service, Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/77, Navigation to document: press "next" four times, see bottom listing, and at the right choose letter for language ("E" for English) Document: CHR 54th 4/22/1998E/CN.4/RES/1998/77. United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1998 [2008-04-24]. 
  7. ^ D. CHRISTOPHER DECKER; AND LUCIA FRESA. THE STATUS OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION UNDER ARTICLE 4 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 33 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 379 (2000); See pages 412–424, (or PDF pages 34–36) (PDF). New York University School of Law, Issues – Volume 33. 29 March 2001 [2009-12-02]. 
  8. ^ Campaigns: International Day on Conscientious Objection. [2014-05-10]. 
  9. ^ http://www.opednews.com/populum/pagem.php?f=Confessions-of-a-Military-by-Richard-Wilson-100428-533.html